Dealing a blow to climate change tort litigants, the Supreme Court ruled 8-0 on June 20, 2011 that Congressional authorization of greenhouse gas (“GHG”) limits has displaced federal common law suits seeking GHG reductions. The Court’s decision in American Electric Power v. Connecticut reversed the Second Circuit Court of Appeals’ ruling that allowed a group of states, cities and land trusts – including New York State and New York City – to pursue federal public nuisance claims against the nation’s largest electric utility GHG emitters.
Justice Sotomayor, who sat on the Second Circuit panel that initially heard the case, recused herself from the Supreme Court’s deliberations. Although the ruling on displacement of federal common law claims was unanimous, the remaining justices were equally divided over whether federal jurisdiction even existed. Four members of the Court (presumably Justices Alito, Roberts, Thomas and Scalia) would have barred the suit on standing or other jurisdictional grounds, while four others (presumably Justices Kagan, Breyer, Ginsburg and Kennedy) affirmed plaintiffs’ standing. (Slip. Op. at 6.) This split – which upholds the Second Circuit’s finding of the plaintiffs’ standing – dates back to the Supreme Court’s 2007 climate change decision, Massachusetts v. EPA, where by a 5-4 margin the Court affirmed the state petitioners’ standing and upheld EPA authority to regulate GHGs under the Clean Air Act.
Justice Ginsburg – part of the five-member majority in Massachusetts v. EPA – authored the latest climate decision. Without deciding whether federal common law could redress GHG-related claims in the absence of Congressional action, she wrote that “any such claim [in this case] would be displaced by the federal legislation authorizing EPA to regulate carbon-dioxide emissions.” (Slip. Op. at 9.) Rejecting the states’ argument that displacement should not apply until EPA actually regulated the sources in question, which it has yet to do, Ginsburg answered: “The critical point is that Congress delegated to EPA the decision whether and how to regulate carbon-dioxide emissions from power plants; the delegation is what displaces federal common law.” (Slip. Op. at 12.)
The Supreme Court decision does not necessarily foreclose all future climate change tort suits. The Court did not determine whether federal law has preempted state common law remedies, as this issue was not decided below or briefed before the Supreme Court. (Slip. Op. at 15-16.) That issue was left open for consideration on remand. Moreover, the Court’s displacement-based decision could be revisited should Congress withdraw or otherwise interfere with EPA’s existing climate change authority, as several opponents of EPA regulation have proposed in recent years.
On Thursday, June 30th, the New York City Bar Association’s Environmental Law Committee and International Environmental Law Committee, the Environmental Law Institute, and the Center for Climate Change Law at Columbia Law School are sponsoring a debate on the Supreme Court’s decision at 6:00 p.m. in the Great Hall of the New York City Bar Association. Event information and registration are currently available online.